Geography and Demography


Surakarta city is located at 110° 45’ 15” to 110°45’ 35” east longitude and, between 7°36’ and 7°56’ south latitude. Surakarta is one of the big cities in Central Java that support other cities like ‘Semarang’ and ‘Yogyakarta’.

Surakarta, mostly well known as “Solo City”- is a lowland with 92 m altitude. The City is bounded in the north side by Boyolali regency, in the east side by Karangayar Regency. Meanwhile, Sukoharjo Regency is neighboring at the Southern and Western as well.

Surakarta is divided administratively into 5 sub district with the total area at 44,04 km² . The name of sub district are ; Kecamatan Laweyan, Serengan, Pasar Kliwon, Jebres and Banjarsari. Based on the land utilization, percentage of housing was 66 percent. The percentage to economic activities was about 17 percent.

The temperature of Surakarta City at 2017 ranged from 15,1°C to 33,5°C. The humidity in Surakarta recorded 69 to 87 percent. January and February was a month with the most rainy day happened, the amount of rainy days was 24 days.


One of the earliest censuses held in Surakarta Residency (Residentie Soerakarta) was in 1885. At that time, with an area of about 5,677 km² (2191.9 sq mi), there were 1,053,985 people in Surakarta Residency, including 2,694 Europeans and 7,543 Indonesian-Chinese. The area, 130 times the current area of Surakarta, had a population density of 186 people/km² (480/sq mi). The capital of the residency itself (roughly the size of the City of Solo proper) in 1880 had 124,041 people living in it.[

According to the 2009 census, there were 245,043 males and 283,159 females (a sex ratio of 86.54) in Surakarta. 119,951 of the population were 14 years or younger, 376,180 were between 15 and 64, and 32,071 were above 65. The number of households was 142,627 and the average number of household members was 3.7. The population growth in the last 10 years was about 0.565% per year.

The labor force of Solo in 2009 was 275,546, of whom 246,768 were working, while 28,778 were seeking work. Another 148,254 people aged 15 and above were not in the labor force. Based on employment numbers, the most common work in Solo was worker/paid employee (112,336), followed by self-employee (56,112), self-employee assisted by temporary employee (32,769), unpaid employee (20,193), self-employee assisted by permanent employee (14,880), freelance employee in non-agricultural work (10,241), and freelance employee in agricultural work (237). Based on the industry, most people in Solo worked in trade (106,426), services (59,780), manufacturing (42,065), communication (16,815), construction (9,217), financing (9,157), or agriculture (2,608), and the rest in mining, electricity, gas, and water companies (700).[

The mean working week in Solo was 47.04 hours (47.74 for men and 46.13 for women), and 212,262 people worked more than 35 hours per week compared to 34,506 who worked less than that

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